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MAYO CLINIC - HEART CONDITIONS AND PREGNANCY - KNOW THE RISKS

Pregnancy stresses your heart and circulatory system, but many women who have heart conditions deliver healthy babies. Know the risks – and how to help prevent complications.

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WORLD HEART FEDERATION – CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS

There are many risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. The major risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol use, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diets, have a high prevalence across the world.

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MAYO CLINIC – HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND PREGNANCY: KNOW THE FACTS

High blood pressure and pregnancy isn’t necessarily a dangerous combination. Here’s what you need to know to take care of yourself — and your baby.

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WHO – QUESTION AND ANSWER: WHAT CAN I DO TO AVOID A HEART ATTACK OR A STROKE?

What can I do to avoid a heart attack or a stroke?

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NIH – NATIONAL HEART LUNG BLOOD INSTITUTE – HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANCY

Information for patients on high blood pressure.

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MAYO CLINIC – DEFINITION OF PREECLAMPSIA

Preeclampsia is defined as high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman who previously had normal blood pressure.

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MAYO CLINIC - CAUSES OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Researchers don’t yet know exactly why some women develop gestational diabetes. To understand how gestational diabetes occurs, it can help to understand how pregnancy affects your body’s normal processing of glucose.

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MAYO CLINIC - RISK FACTORS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Any woman can develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk.

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MAYO CLINIC - DEFINITION OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby’s health.

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MAYO CLINIC - COMPLICATIONS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes that’s not carefully managed can lead to uncontrolled blood sugar levels and cause problems for you and your baby, including an increased likelihood of needing delivery by C-section.

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MAYO CLINIC - SYMPTOMS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES

For most women, gestational diabetes doesn’t cause noticeable signs or symptoms. Rarely, gestational diabetes may cause excessive thirst or increased urination.

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THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS - MENTAL HEALTH IN PREGNANCY

A fact sheet and resource for mental health in pregnancy by The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS - POSTNATAL DEPRESSION IN PREGNANCY

A fact sheet and resource for postnatal depression in pregnancy by The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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MAYO CLINIC - DEFINITION OF HIV/AIDS

Information from Mayo Clinic on HIV/AIDS.

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HIV/AIDS FACT SHEET

Facts about HIV/AIDS that everyone needs to know

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MAYO CLINIC - INFECTIONS COMMON TO HIV/AIDS

HIV infection weakens your immune system, making you highly susceptible to all sorts of infections and certain types of cancers.

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MAYO CLINIC - TRANSMISSION AND RISK FACTORS OF HIV/AIDS

To become infected with HIV, infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions must enter your body. You can’t become infected through ordinary contact – hugging, kissing, dancing or shaking hands – with someone who has HIV or AIDS. HIV can’t be transmitted through the air, water or via insect bites.

The type of HIV found in many African nations is more easily spread through heterosexual sex. Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected.

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MAYO CLINIC - SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS

The symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary, depending on the phase of infection.

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MAYO CLINIC – CAUSES OF TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air.

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MAYO CLINIC – DEFINITION OF TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease that primarily affects your lungs.

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MAYO CLINIC – RISK FACTORS OF TUBERCULOSIS

Anyone can get tuberculosis, but certain factors can increase your risk of the disease.

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MAYO CLINIC – SYMPTOMS OF TUBERCULOSIS

Although your body may harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, your immune system usually can prevent you from becoming sick.

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MAYO CLINIC – COMPLICATIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS

Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal.

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HSFSA NUTRITION IN PREGNANCY GUIDELINES

It is very important that you follow a healthy lifestyle that includes adequate amounts of nutritious foods and regular exercise, especially during pregnancy. The maternal diet should include enough energy and nutrients to provide for the growth and development of the unborn baby as well as to ensure health and intelligence in the child later in life.

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ROYAL COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNAECOLOGISTS – WHY YOUR WEIGHT MATTERS DURING PREGNANCY AND AFT

Most women who are overweight have a straightforward pregnancy and birthand deliver healthy babies. However being overweight does increase the risk of complications to both you and your baby. This information is about the extra care you will be offered during your pregnancy and how you can minimise the risks to you and your baby in this pregnancy, and in a future pregnancy. Your healthcare professionals will not judge you for being overweight and will give you all the support that you need.

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MAYO CLINIC – PREVENTION OF FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME

Doctors haven’t identified a safe level of alcohol that a pregnant woman can consume. But experts do know that FAS is completely preventable if women don’t drink alcohol during pregnancy.

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ROYAL COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNAECOLOGISTS - RECREATIONAL EXERCISE AND PREGNANCY

This information is designed to help you and your healthcare professional to discuss and develop an exercise programme during pregnancy and immediately after the birth of your baby.

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MAYO CLINIC – PREGNANCY AND EXERCISE

During pregnancy, exercise can help you stay in shape and prepare for labor and delivery. Here’s the lowdown on pregnancy and exercise, from getting started to staying motivated.

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NHS – EXERCISE IN PREGNANCY

The more active and fit you are during pregnancy, the easier it will be for you to adapt to your changing shape and weight gain. It will also help you to cope withlabourand get back into shape after the birth. Keep up your normal daily physical activity or exercise (sport, dancing, or even walking to the shops and back) for as long as you feel comfortable.

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MAYO CLINIC - RISK FACTORS OF PREECLAMPSIA

Preeclampsia develops only during pregnancy.

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MAYO CLINIC - CAUSES OF PREECLAMPSIA

Preeclampsia used to be called toxemia because it was thought to be caused by a toxin in a pregnant woman’s bloodstream. This theory has been discarded, but researchers have yet to determine what causes preeclampsia.

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MAYO CLINIC – SYMPTOMS OF PREECLAMPSIA

Preeclampsia can develop gradually but often starts abruptly, after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Preeclampsia may range from mild to severe.

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NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH – CLINICAL GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV & AIDS IN ADULTS AND A

These guidelines complement existing HIV/AIDS and TB management guidelines, and are the result of extensive consultation through the SANAC Treatment Technical Task Team.

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SOUTH AFRICAN ANTIRETROVIRAL GUIDELINES

Guidelines for antiretroviral drugs in South Africa.

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AIDS FACT SHEET

Important information about HIV/AIDS.

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WHO - USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING PREGNANT WOMEN & PREVENTING HIV INFECTION IN INFANTS

Recent developments suggest that substantial clinical and programmatic advantages can come from adopting a single, universal regimen both to treat HIV-infected pregnant women and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

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SA STI GUIDELINES - PROTOCOL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF A PERSON WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION

First line comprehensive management and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

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SA PMTCT GUIDELINES - PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION

Clinical guidelines from the National Department of Health, South Africa; South African National AIDS Council.

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SA PMTCT - HIV AND PREGNANCY - INFORMATION FOR DOCTORS

Helpful information for doctors and health care professionals about HIV/AIDS and pregnancy.

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CDC PMTCT GUIDELINES - MOTHER-TO-CHILD HIV TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION

HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy, labour and delivery, or breastfeeding is called perinatal transmission. Download attached PDF for more…

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SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON LACTATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Previous research demonstrated that breast-feeding infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers consumed an acute dose of alcohol when compared with a nonalcoholic beverage. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal alcohol consumption decreases the amount of milk available to the infant and alters milk composition in the short term.

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ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, SMOKING AND BREASTFEEDING IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS AFTER DELIVERY

A study of alcohol use and smoking after delivery and to relate this to breastfeeding.

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IMPACT OF SMOKING ON THE DURATION OF BREASTFEEDING IN MOTHERS WITH INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLIT

The effect of smoking on breastfeeding was studied in 252 mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) giving birth in the period 1985–1995.

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EATING HEALTHY FOR MOM AND BABY

Eatplentyofvegetablesandfruiteveryday(atleastfiveservings), plus sixportionsofproteineveryday:skinlesschicken,leanmeat,fish,eggs andlegumes.

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THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL IN BREAST MILK ON INFANT BEHAVIOURAL STATE AND MOTHER-INFANT FEEDING INTERA

An estimated two thirds ofAmerican women drink alcohol during their childbearing years (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1988). Consequently, numerous researchers have studied the impact of exposure to alcohol on infant outcomes.

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MATERNAL DIET AND BREASTFEEDING: A CASE FOR RETHINKING PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR BREASTFEEDING

The relationship between maternal smoking and breastfeeding and maternal obesity and breastfeeding are similar; increasing levels of smoking or obesity are associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding.

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IMPACT OF MATERNAL DIET DURING PREGNANCY AND BREASTFEEDING ON INFANT METABOLIC PROGRAMMING: A PROSPE

To evaluate the impact of maternal diet and intensive dietary counselling during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the infant’s metabolic status.

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MATERNAL DIET AND BREASTFEEDING: A CASE FOR RETHINKING PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR BREASTFEEDING

Although some authors explain determinants of breastfeeding that occur in a dose–response manner as evidence of causality, we argue that dose–response relationships are not proof of a biological relationship between the variables.

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HEART FOUNDATION: NUTRITION IN PREGNANCY

It is important that you gain an adequate amount of weight during pregnancy to ensure that you are providing for your unborn baby.

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SYMPOSIUM: WOMEN’S VOICES, WOMEN’S CHOICES: THE CHALLENGE OF NUTRITION AND HIV/AIDS

Breast-feeding is a route of HIV transmission from an HIV infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and part of a mother’s womanhood. This paper highlights the dilemma created by the risks and the benefits of breast-feeding and will discuss the implementation in South Africa of the Safer Breastfeeding Programme, to reduce some of the known risk factors associated with HIV transmission.

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MAYO CLINIC – PREGNANCY AND EXERCISE

During pregnancy, exercise can help you stay in shape and prepare for labor and delivery. Here’s the lowdown on pregnancy and exercise, from getting started to staying motivated.

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A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF RURAL FEEDING AND WEANING PRACTICES, KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES ON NUTRITI

The data analysis revealed that inadequate nutrition knowledge and adherence to cultural practices lead to poor-quality feeding practices. Cultural factors and taboos have a powerful influence on feeding practices and eating patterns.

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PAEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL: EFFECTS OF MATERNAL SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY ON BODY COMPOSITION

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to use objective methods to assess the association between maternal smoking and body composition in offspring. A total of 2508 grade 4 school children were enrolled; all underwent lifestyle disease and passive smoking screening.

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ROYAL COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNAECOLOGISTS – WHY YOUR WEIGHT MATTERS DURING PREGNANCY AND AF

Most women who are overweight have a straightforward pregnancy and birth and deliver healthy babies. However being overweight does increase the risk of complications to both you and your baby.

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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE REVISED FOOD-BASED DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR SOUTH AFRICA

Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are short, positive, science-based messages that aim to change the eating behaviour of the general population towards more optimal diets that meet energy and nutrient requirements, while simultaneously helping to protect against the development of noncommunicable diseases.

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EFFECT OF A MOTHER-TO-CHILD HIV-PREVENTION PROGRAMME ON INFANT FEEDING AND CARING PRACTICES IN SOUTH

South Africa has one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. According to the national HIV survey of women attending antenatal clinics of public health services in South Africa, the prevalence of HIV infection among women under 20 years of age is estimated to have nearly tripled from 6.5% in 1994 to 19% in 1999.

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STRATEGIC PLAN FOR A CAMPAIGN ON ACCELERATED REDUCTION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD MORTALITY IN AFRICA

High maternal, perinatal and under-five morbidity and mortality are some of the formidable development challenges in Africa. The disturbing part is that the large number of deaths is due to preventable causes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide, as many as 1500 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth.

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